Wireless EM Propagation Software from Remcom
Recom's Wireless InSite® is site-specific radio propagation software for the analysis and design of wireless communication systems. It provides predictions of propagation and communication channel characteristics in complex urban, indoor, rural and mixed path environments.
The bolt is a crucial component in modern manufacturing and has a vast range of applications in both commercial and industrial products, from airliners to gardening tools. Despite their seemingly straight forward role, bolts display a relatively complex combination of mechanical properties and design features that enable them to function properly.
Threads are one of a bolt’s main characteristics. A thread functions under the basic concept of an inclined plane that is spiraled around the length of a fastener. This spiral requires rotational pressure to be inserted into a slot. Turning the bolt causes the threads to move the complementary slot or nut upward against the inclined plane. The greater the torque, or turning force, the greater the pressure pulling the nut forward along the threads. This in turn creates tension in the bolt and a clamping force that presses the two components together. A higher number or a denser arrangement of threads can strengthen the joint. In addition, cutting threads into the bolt after it has been heat-treated also improves thread strength.
The act of tightening a bolt engages several different types of mechanical force that help the resultant joint remain secure. The main forces generated by bolt installation include:
The clamping force accomplishes the task of holding multiple parts together, and is determined by the difference between the preloading force and the tension force. When the strength of the tension force equals that of the preload force, the bolt fails and the joint breaks apart. Generally, higher preload force translates into higher clamping force, which makes for a stronger bolted joint. Ideally, precise bolt installation and tightening will create a joint that yields little or no direct shear force. More detailed equations can be found at Keeping It All Together.
Manufactured for Strength
The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) sets most of the standards for bolt specifications in the
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