Standard and Custom High-Res Lens Assemblies from Universe Kogaku America |
Universe Kogaku designs and manufactures precision assembled optics for the most demanding applications: UV Quartz, CCD/CMOS, CCTV, and Hi-Res Lenses, Mounts, Filters and Accessories. Design assistance available. 1000s of Lenses in Stock. Since 1949.
Heat exchangers are devices whose primary responsibility is the transfer (exchange) of heat, typically from one fluid to another. However, they are not only used in heating applications, such as space heaters, but are also used in cooling applications, such as refrigerators and air conditioners. Many types of heat exchangers can be distinguished from on another based on the direction the liquids flow. In such applications, the heat exchangers can be and be parallel-flow, cross-flow, or countercurrent. In parallel-flow heat exchangers, both fluid involved move in the same direction, entering and exiting the exchanger side by side. In cross-flow heat exchangers, the fluid paths run perpendicular to one another. In countercurrent heat exchangers, the fluid paths flow in opposite directions, with each exiting where the other enters. Countercurrent heat exchangers tend to be more effective than other types of exchangers.
Types of Heat Exchangers
Shell and tube heat exchangers are comprised of multiple tubes through which liquid flows. The tubes are divided into two sets: the first set contains the liquid to be heated or cooled. The second set contains the liquid responsible for triggering the heat exchange, and either removes heat from the first set of tubes by absorbing and transmitting heat away—in essence, cooling the liquid—or warms the set by transmitting its own heat to the liquid inside. When designing this type of exchanger, care must be taken in determining the correct tube wall thickness as well as tube diameter, to allow optimum heat exchange. In terms of flow, shell and tube heat exchangers can assume any of three flow path patterns.
Plate heat exchangers consist of thin plates joined together, with a small amount of space between each plate, typically maintained by a small rubber gasket. The surface area is large, and the corners of each rectangular plate feature an opening through which fluid can flow between plates, extracting heat from the plates as it flows. The fluid channels themselves alternate hot and cold fluids, meaning that heat exchangers can effectively cool as well as heat fluid—they are often used in refrigeration applications. Because plate heat exchangers have such a large surface area, they are often more effective than shell and tube heat exchangers.
In a regenerative heat exchanger, the same fluid is passed along both sides of the exchanger, which can be either a plate heat exchanger or a shell and tube heat exchanger. Because the fluid can get very hot, the exiting fluid is used to warm the incoming fluid, maintaining a near constant temperature. A large amount of energy is saved in a regenerative heat exchanger because the process is cyclical, with almost all relative heat being transferred from the exiting fluid to the incoming fluid. To maintain a constant temperature, only a little extra energy is need to raise and lower the overall fluid temperature.
In this type of heat exchanger, an intermediate fluid is used to store heat, which is then transferred to the opposite side of the exchanger unit. An adiabatic wheel consists of a large wheel with threads that rotate through the fluids—both hot and cold—to extract or transfer heat.
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