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The Designer's Guide to Tungsten Carbide

Publisher: General Carbide Corp.
Overview:
This paper provides a reference guide for Tungsten Carbide. It features descriptions of the unique properties of cemented carbide in terms of size, stress, fatigue strength, elasticity, hardness, density, thermal properties, electrical and magnetic properties, permeability, and corrosion resistance. The considerations for designing such as working stress, safety factor, and impact resistance are outlined. Suitability of cemented carbide in corrosive environment and under high temperature is highlighted. The methods of attaching and assembling carbide parts through different types of mechanical fastening such as clamping, wedge, dovetail, screw mounting, draw rod mounting, tapped holes, threaded pins, shrink fit mountings, press fits, mounting external rings and sleeves, expansion joints, brazing, and thermal expansion are explained. The process of relieving braze strains, and types of brazing alloys and the procedures and preparation of brazing are overviewed. The finishing techniques for cemented carbide such as grinding and EDM are also explained.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.Unique Properties of Cemented Carbide1-1
1.1Definition of Cemented Carbide1-1
1.2The Effect of Size1-2
1.3The Effect of Stress State (Bending, Tension, Torsion)1-3
1.4Fatigue Strength1-4
1.5Modulus of Elasticity of Cemented Carbide1-4
1.6Shear Modulus of Cemented Carbide1-5
1.7Hardness1-5
1.8Density1-5
1.9Thermal Properties1-6
1.9.1Linear Expansion Coefficient1-6
1.9.2Thermal Conductivity1-6
1.10Electrical and Magnetic Properties1-6
1.10.1Electrical Resistance and Conductivity1-6
1.10.2Magnetic Properties1-6
1.11Permeability1-6
1.12Corrosion Resistance1-6
2.Considerations for Designing with Cemented Carbide2-1
2.1Working Stress2-1
2.2Safety Factor Selection2-1
2.3Determination of Failure Stress2-2
2.4Fatigue Strength2-3
2.5Impact Resistance2-3
2.6Stress Concentration2-3
3.Designing for Extreme Operating Conditions3-1
3.1Corrosion3-1
3.2Elevated Temperatures3-3
4.Attaching and Assembling Cemented Carbide Parts4-1
4.1Mechanical Fastening4-1
4.2Design Rules For Mechanical Fastening4-1
4.3Methods of Mechanical Fastening4-2
4.3.1Clamping4-2
4.3.2Wedge4-2
4.3.3Dovetail4-2
4.3.4Screw Mounting4-3
4.3.5Draw Rod Mounting4-5
4.3.6Tapped Holes4-6
4.3.7Threaded Pins4-6
4.3.8Shrink Fit Mounting4-6
4.3.9Press Fits4-11
4.3.10Mounting External Rings and Sleeves4-12
4.3.11Expansion Joints4-13
4.4Brazing4-14
4.5Thermal Expansion4-14
4.6Thermal Strain4-15
4.7Relieving Braze Strains4-16
4.7.1Sandwich Braze4-16
4.7.2Counterstraining4-16
4.7.3Peening4-17
4.7.4Soaking4-17
4.8Designing to Avoid Strains4-17
4.9Shrink Brazing Circular Parts4-19
4.10Thin Wall Bushings For Inserted Threads in Carbide4-20
4.11Thickness of Brazed Joints4-20
4.12Types of Brazing Alloys4-21
4.12.1Low Temperature Soldering4-21
4.12.2Medium Temperature Brazing4-21
4.12.3High Temperature Brazing4-22
4.13Brazing to Hardened Steel4-23
4.14Shape of the Brazed Joint4-24
4.15Brazing Procedures for Cemented Carbide4-24
4.16Brazing Preparation Steps4-24
4.16.1Turning Plugs4-24
4.16.2Staging Parts4-24
4.16.3Brazing Parts4-25
4.16.4Cooling4-25
4.16.5Clean-Up and Inspection4-25
4.16.6Additional Notes4-25
4.17Brazing Procedure for Plugging of Fine Grain Cemented Carbide4-25
4.18Industrial Adhesives4-26
4.19Thermal Cycling4-27
4.20Surface Preparation4-27
4.21Adhesive Recommendations4-27
5.Finishing Techniques for Cemented Carbide5-1
5.1Grinding of Cemented Carbide Parts5-1
5.2Grinding Factors5-2
5.3Cemented Carbide Surface Finishes5-2
5.4Electrical Discharge Machining of Cemented Carbide5-4
5.4.1What Is It?5-4
5.4.2How It Works5-4
5.5Designing Carbide Parts with EDM In Mind5-5
5.6Cutting Speed5-6
5.7EDM Limitations5-6
6.Figures
6.1Figure 1-11-2
6.2Figure 1-11-5
6.3Figure 2-12-2
6.4Figure 3-13-1
6.5Figure 3-23-1
6.6Figure 3-33-2
6.7Figure 4-14-2
6.8Figure 4-24-2
6.8Figure 4-34-2
6.9Figure 4-4A4-3
6.10Figure 4-4B4-3
6.11Figure 4-4C4-3
6.12Figure 4-54-3
6.13Figure 4-64-4
6.14Figure 4-74-4
6.15Figure 4-84-4
6.16Figure 4-94-4
6.17Figure 4-104-5
6.18Figure 4-114-6
6.19Figure 4-124-6
6.20Figure 4-134-6
6.21Figure 4-144-7
6.22Figure 4-154-7
6.23Figure 4-164-10
6.24Figure 4-174-11
6.25Figure 4-184-12
6.26Figure 4-194-12
6.27Figure 4-204-12
6.28Figure 4-214-13
6.29Figure 4-224-13
6.30Figure 4-234-13
6.31Figure 4-244-13
6.32Figure 4-254-14
6.33Figure 4-264-15
6.34Figure 4-274-16
6.35Figure 4-284-17
6.36Figure 4-294-17
6.37Figure 4-304-17
6.38Figure 4-314-18
6.39Figure 4-324-18
6.40Figure 4-334-19
6.41Figure 4-344-21
6.42Figure 5-15-1
6.43Figure 5-25-2
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