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Environmental Stress Screening Tutorial

Publisher: Accolade Engineering Solutions
Overview:
This paper provides an overview of environmental stress screening technology, and describes the developmental aspects of an effective environmental stress screening process. The study begins by describing the purpose of any environmental stress screening (ESS) regimen and discussing the most common mathematical models for quantifying stress screening programs, also called the empirical stress screen equations. The different phases of environmental stress screening technology such as the product profiling phase, also called the HALT (Highly Accelerated Life Test) of ESS executed by the designers engineering, and screen development phase of ESS implementation executed by manufacturing are analyzed. The type of stimulus and the screening parameters to determine the type of thermal cycling equipment to be used, are also covered. Finally, this paper concludes that the environmental stress screening programs must ensure that they properly stimulate the types of defects that are expected to be found in production and in the field.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.Introduction2
2.References3
3.Definitions4
3.1.Bathtub Curve4
3.2.Burn-In Test4
3.3.Creep4
3.4.Coffin-Manson Model4
3.5.Corrective Action4
3.6.Cyclic Differential Expansion4
3.7.Cyclic Temperature Range or Swing4
3.8.Destruct Limit4
3.9.Detection Screen4
3.10.Environmental Stress Screening4
3.11.Highly Accelerated Stress Screen4
3.12.Infant Mortality5
3.13.Latent5
3.14.Maximum Cyclic Strain Range5
3.15.NAVMAT P-9492 Random Vibration Profile5
3.16.Operating Limit5
3.17.Patent5
3.18.Precipitate5
3.19.Precipitation Screen5
3.20.Proof of Screen5
3.21.Random Vibration5
3.22.Sine Vibration5
3.23.Solder Attachment5
3.24.Step Stress Approach5
3.25.Stress Relation5
3.26.Thermal Cycling6
3.27.Thermal Shock6
3.28.Vibration6
4.Background7
5.Solder Joint Failure Mechanisms and Environmental Stimuli12
6.Introduction of Mathematical Models14
6.1.The Arrhenius Reaction Rate Model14
6.2.The RADC Models15
6.2.1.The RADC Constant Temperature Model15
6.2.2.The RADC Thermal Cycling Model16
7.Product Profiling19
7.1.Documentation19
7.2.Selection of Stimuli19
7.3.Determination of Product Limits20
7.4.Product Changes to Improve Margins20
8.Screen Development21
8.1.Selection of Stimuli21
8.2.Magnitude of Precipitation Stimuli21
8.2.1.Voltage22
8.2.2.Vibration22
8.2.3.Thermal Cycling22
8.2.4.Power Cycling22
8.3.Duration of Applied Stimuli22
8.4.Proof of Screen23
8.5.Testing During the Precipitation Screen24
8.6.Detection Screens24
8.6.1.Voltage24
8.6.2.Vibration24
8.6.3.Thermal Cycling24
8.6.4.Elevated Temperature25
8.7.Root Cause Analysis25
8.8.Optimizing the ESS Process25
8.9.Corrective Action26
8.10.Re-Screening Product27
9.Thermal Screening Equipment28
10.Conclusions30
11.Figures8
11.1.IES Survey of Screening Effectiveness8
11.2.French ESS Task Team ESS Effectiveness Survey9
11.3.Stress Strain Curves for Solder Joints12
11.4.Solder Joint Lifetime as a Function of Thermal Cycling Temperature Range13
11.5.Arrhenuis Acceleration Plot as Function of Temperature15
11.6.RADC Model for Screening Strength of Constant Temperature Screen16
11.7.Screening Strength as a Function of Number of Thermal Cycles17
11.8.Number of Thermal Cycles as a Function of Rate of Temperature Change17
11.9.Screening Strength as a Function of Time18
11.10.Single Zone Chamber Layout29
11.11.2 Zone Air-to-Air Chamber29
12.Tables8
12.1.Summary of Electrical Burn-in Results8
12.2.Baseline Regimen for Organizations Lacking ESS Experience9
12.3.IC Failure Mechanism and the Best Screens for Precipitation or Detection11
12.4.Screening Time and Temperature Rate of Change18
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