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The Manufacturing Process for Cemented Tungsten Carbides

Publisher: General Carbide Corp.
Overview:
A complete guide to the manufacturing process for cemented tungsten carbides is presented in this paper. Tungsten carbide is a compound formed by the reaction of tungsten metal powder and carbon powder at temperatures of 2,600-2,700F. The paper lists various metals and compounds used in manufacturing of tungsten carbide, and describes the chemical process for tungsten ores, and the various factors that control the particle size of the tungsten metal powder. Chemical formulae from scheelite ore to tungsten carbide are included and the sequence of processes involved in the production of carbide grades are explained in detail. The paper also contains charts that illustrate some of the key properties of tungsten carbide alloys.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.The Manufacturing Process for Cemented Tungsten Carbides2
1.1.Metals & Compounds Primarily Used in Manufacturing Tungsten Carbide2
1.2.Other Metals & Compounds Used in Carbides2
2.Chemical Process for Tungsten Ores3
2.1.Main Factors Controlling Particle Size4
2.2.Chemical Formulae from Scheelite Ore to Tungsten Carbide5
2.3.Cobalt6
2.4.Major Free World Deposits of Cobalt6
2.5.Titanium Carbide7
2.6.Tantalum Carbide7
2.7.Carbide Grade Production9
3.Weighing10
4.Ball Milling10
5.Screening10
6.Drying11
7.Lubricant Addition11
8.Homogenizing or Delumping11
9.Pressing11
9.1.Isostatic Pressing11
9.2.Hydraulic Pressing12
9.3.Automatic Pressing12
10.Pre-sintering12
11.Preforming12
12.Sintering13
12.1.Sintering Methods Used in Carbide Manufacturing13
12.2.A. Hydrogen Sintering13
12.3.B. Hydrogen Combination Pre-sintering & Final Sintering13
12.4.C. Combination Vacuum Sintering14
12.5.D. Direct Vacuum Sintering14
12.6.E. Combination Vacuum Sintering and Hot-Iso Pressing14
13.Hot Iso Pressing15
14.Carbide Grade Development15
14.1.Key Properties of Some Hard-Metal Carbides15
15.Charts
15.1Chart of WC-Co Alloys17
15.2.Chart of WC-Co Alloys Hardness vs. Strength18
15.3.Co-WC System Shrink Factor19
15.4.Density vs. Composition Chart20
15.5.Co-WC System Rockwell 'A' Hardness21
15.6.Co-WC System Hardness vs. Sintered Density22
15.7.Co-WC System Transverse Rupture Strength23
15.8.Chart of Hardness vs. Strength for WC-Co Grade Carbides24
15.9.Properties of WC-Co Sintered Materials25
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